Collections

Introduction

A test library providing keywords for handling lists and dictionaries.

Collections is Robot Framework's standard library that provides a set of keywords for handling Python lists and dictionaries. This library has keywords, for example, for modifying and getting values from lists and dictionaries (e.g. Append To ListGet From Dictionary) and for verifying their contents (e.g. Lists Should Be EqualDictionary Should Contain Value).

Following keywords in the BuiltIn library can also be used with lists and dictionaries:

Keyword Name Applicable With Comment
Create List lists  
Create Dictionary dicts Was in Collections until RF 2.9.
Get Length both  
Length Should Be both  
Should Be Empty both  
Should Not Be Empty both  
Should Contain both  
Should Not Contain both  
Should Contain X Times lists  
Should Not Contain X Times lists  
Get Count lists  

Using with list-like and dictionary-like objects

List keywords that do not alter the given list can also be used with tuples, and to some extend also with other iterables. Convert To List can be used to convert tuples and other iterables to Python list objects.

Similarly dictionary keywords can, for most parts, be used with other mappings. Convert To Dictionary can be used if real Python dict objects are needed.

Boolean arguments

Some keywords accept arguments that are handled as Boolean values true or false. If such an argument is given as a string, it is considered false if it is an empty string or equal to FALSENONENOOFF or 0, case-insensitively. Keywords verifying something that allow dropping actual and expected values from the possible error message also consider string no values to be false. Other strings are considered true regardless their value, and other argument types are tested using the same rules as in Python.

True examples:

Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=True # Strings are generally true.
Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=yes # Same as the above.
Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=${TRUE} # Python True is true.
Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=${42} # Numbers other than 0 are true.

False examples:

Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=False # String false is false.  
Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=no # Also string no is false.  
Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=${EMPTY} # Empty string is false.  
Should Contain Match ${list} ${pattern} case_insensitive=${FALSE} # Python False is false.  
Lists Should Be Equal ${x} ${y} Custom error values=no values no values works with values argument

Considering string NONE false is new in Robot Framework 3.0.3 and considering also OFF and 0 false is new in Robot Framework 3.1.

Data in examples

List related keywords use variables in format ${Lx} in their examples. They mean lists with as many alphabetic characters as specified by x. For example, ${L1} means ['a'] and ${L3} means ['a', 'b', 'c'].

Dictionary keywords use similar ${Dx} variables. For example, ${D1} means {'a': 1} and ${D3} means {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3}.

 
 

Keywords

Keyword Arguments Documentation
Append To List list_, *values

Adds values to the end of list.

Example:

Append To List ${L1} xxx    
Append To List ${L2} x y z

=>

${L1} = ['a', 'xxx']
${L2} = ['a', 'b', 'x', 'y', 'z']
Combine Lists *lists

Combines the given lists together and returns the result.

The given lists are not altered by this keyword.

Example:

${x} = Combine List ${L1} ${L2}  
${y} = Combine List ${L1} ${L2} ${L1}

=>

${x} = ['a', 'a', 'b']
${y} = ['a', 'a', 'b', 'a']
${L1} and ${L2} are not changed.
Convert To Dictionary item

Converts the given item to a Python dict type.

Mainly useful for converting other mappings to normal dictionaries. This includes converting Robot Framework's own DotDict instances that it uses if variables are created using the &{var} syntax.

Use Create Dictionary from the BuiltIn library for constructing new dictionaries.

New in Robot Framework 2.9.

Convert To List item

Converts the given item to a Python list type.

Mainly useful for converting tuples and other iterable to lists. Use Create List from the BuiltIn library for constructing new lists.

Copy Dictionary dictionary, deepcopy=False

Returns a copy of the given dictionary.

The deepcopy argument controls should the returned dictionary be a shallow or deep copy. By default returns a shallow copy, but that can be changed by giving deepcopy a true value (see Boolean arguments). This is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier versions always returned shallow copies.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Copy List list_, deepcopy=False

Returns a copy of the given list.

If the optional deepcopy is given a true value, the returned list is a deep copy. New option in Robot Framework 3.1.2.

The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Count Values In List list_, value, start=0, end=None

Returns the number of occurrences of the given value in list.

The search can be narrowed to the selected sublist by the start and end indexes having the same semantics as with Get Slice From List keyword. The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${x} = Count Values In List ${L3} b

=>

${x} = 1
${L3} is not changed
Dictionaries Should Be Equal dict1, dict2, msg=None, values=True

Fails if the given dictionaries are not equal.

First the equality of dictionaries' keys is checked and after that all the key value pairs. If there are differences between the values, those are listed in the error message. The types of the dictionaries do not need to be same.

See Lists Should Be Equal for more information about configuring the error message with msg and values arguments.

Dictionary Should Contain Item dictionary, key, value, msg=None

An item of key / value must be found in a dictionary.

Value is converted to unicode for comparison.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Contain Key dictionary, key, msg=None

Fails if key is not found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Contain Sub Dictionary dict1, dict2, msg=None, values=True

Fails unless all items in dict2 are found from dict1.

See Lists Should Be Equal for more information about configuring the error message with msg and values arguments.

Dictionary Should Contain Value dictionary, value, msg=None

Fails if value is not found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Not Contain Key dictionary, key, msg=None

Fails if key is found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Dictionary Should Not Contain Value dictionary, value, msg=None

Fails if value is found from dictionary.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Get Dictionary Items dictionary, sort_keys=True

Returns items of the given dictionary as a list.

Uses Get Dictionary Keys to get keys and then returns corresponding items. By default keys are sorted and items returned in that order, but this can be changed by giving sort_keys a false value (see Boolean arguments). Notice that with Python 3.5 and earlier dictionary order is undefined unless using ordered dictionaries.

Items are returned as a flat list so that first item is a key, second item is a corresponding value, third item is the second key, and so on.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${sorted} = Get Dictionary Items ${D3}  
${unsorted} = Get Dictionary Items ${D3} sort_keys=False

=>

${sorted} = ['a', 1, 'b', 2, 'c', 3]
${unsorted} = ['b', 2, 'a', 1, 'c', 3]    # Order depends on Python version.

sort_keys is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier items were always sorted based on keys.

Get Dictionary Keys dictionary, sort_keys=True

Returns keys of the given dictionary as a list.

By default keys are returned in sorted order (assuming they are sortable), but they can be returned in the original order by giving sort_keys a false value (see Boolean arguments). Notice that with Python 3.5 and earlier dictionary order is undefined unless using ordered dictionaries.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${sorted} = Get Dictionary Keys ${D3}  
${unsorted} = Get Dictionary Keys ${D3} sort_keys=False

=>

${sorted} = ['a', 'b', 'c']
${unsorted} = ['b', 'a', 'c']   # Order depends on Python version.

sort_keys is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier keys were always sorted.

Get Dictionary Values dictionary, sort_keys=True

Returns values of the given dictionary as a list.

Uses Get Dictionary Keys to get keys and then returns corresponding values. By default keys are sorted and values returned in that order, but this can be changed by giving sort_keys a false value (see Boolean arguments). Notice that with Python 3.5 and earlier dictionary order is undefined unless using ordered dictionaries.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${sorted} = Get Dictionary Values ${D3}  
${unsorted} = Get Dictionary Values ${D3} sort_keys=False

=>

${sorted} = [1, 2, 3]
${unsorted} = [2, 1, 3]    # Order depends on Python version.

sort_keys is a new option in Robot Framework 3.1.2. Earlier values were always sorted based on keys.

Get From Dictionary dictionary, key

Returns a value from the given dictionary based on the given key.

If the given key cannot be found from the dictionary, this keyword fails.

The given dictionary is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${value} = Get From Dictionary ${D3} b

=>

${value} = 2
Get From List list_, index

Returns the value specified with an index from list.

The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Index 0 means the first position, 1 the second, and so on. Similarly, -1 is the last position, -2 the second last, and so on. Using an index that does not exist on the list causes an error. The index can be either an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Examples (including Python equivalents in comments):

${x} = Get From List ${L5} 0 # L5[0]
${y} = Get From List ${L5} -2 # L5[-2]

=>

${x} = 'a'
${y} = 'd'
${L5} is not changed
Get Index From List list_, value, start=0, end=None

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the value on the list.

The search can be narrowed to the selected sublist by the start and end indexes having the same semantics as with Get Slice From List keyword. In case the value is not found, -1 is returned. The given list is never altered by this keyword.

Example:

${x} = Get Index From List ${L5} d

=>

${x} = 3
${L5} is not changed
Get Match Count list, pattern, case_insensitive=False, whitespace_insensitive=False

Returns the count of matches to pattern in list.

For more information on patterncase_insensitive, and whitespace_insensitive, see Should Contain Match.

Examples:

${count}= Get Match Count ${list} a* # ${count} will be the count of strings beginning with 'a'  
${count}= Get Match Count ${list} regexp=a.* # ${matches} will be the count of strings beginning with 'a' (regexp version)  
${count}= Get Match Count ${list} a* case_insensitive=${True} # ${matches} will be the count of strings beginning with 'a' or 'A'
Get Matches list, pattern, case_insensitive=False, whitespace_insensitive=False

Returns a list of matches to pattern in list.

For more information on patterncase_insensitive, and whitespace_insensitive, see Should Contain Match.

Examples:

${matches}= Get Matches ${list} a* # ${matches} will contain any string beginning with 'a'  
${matches}= Get Matches ${list} regexp=a.* # ${matches} will contain any string beginning with 'a' (regexp version)  
${matches}= Get Matches ${list} a* case_insensitive=${True} # ${matches} will contain any string beginning with 'a' or 'A'
Get Slice From List list_, start=0, end=None

Returns a slice of the given list between start and end indexes.

The given list is never altered by this keyword.

If both start and end are given, a sublist containing values from start to end is returned. This is the same as list[start:end] in Python. To get all items from the beginning, use 0 as the start value, and to get all items until and including the end, use None (default) as the end value.

Using start or end not found on the list is the same as using the largest (or smallest) available index.

Examples (incl. Python equivalents in comments):

${x} = Get Slice From List ${L5} 2 4 # L5[2:4]
${y} = Get Slice From List ${L5} 1   # L5[1:None]
${z} = Get Slice From List ${L5}   -2 # L5[0:-2]

=>

${x} = ['c', 'd']
${y} = ['b', 'c', 'd', 'e']
${z} = ['a', 'b', 'c']
${L5} is not changed
Insert Into List list_, index, value

Inserts value into list to the position specified with index.

Index 0 adds the value into the first position, 1 to the second, and so on. Inserting from right works with negative indices so that -1 is the second last position, -2 third last, and so on. Use Append To List to add items to the end of the list.

If the absolute value of the index is greater than the length of the list, the value is added at the end (positive index) or the beginning (negative index). An index can be given either as an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Example:

Insert Into List ${L1} 0 xxx
Insert Into List ${L2} ${-1} xxx

=>

${L1} = ['xxx', 'a']
${L2} = ['a', 'xxx', 'b']
Keep In Dictionary dictionary, *keys

Keeps the given keys in the dictionary and removes all other.

If the given key cannot be found from the dictionary, it is ignored.

Example:

Keep In Dictionary ${D5} b x d

=>

${D5} = {'b': 2, 'd': 4}
List Should Contain Sub List list1, list2, msg=None, values=True

Fails if not all of the elements in list2 are found in list1.

The order of values and the number of values are not taken into account.

See Lists Should Be Equal for more information about configuring the error message with msg and values arguments.

List Should Contain Value list_, value, msg=None

Fails if the value is not found from list.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

List Should Not Contain Duplicates list_, msg=None

Fails if any element in the list is found from it more than once.

The default error message lists all the elements that were found from the list multiple times, but it can be overridden by giving a custom msg. All multiple times found items and their counts are also logged.

This keyword works with all iterables that can be converted to a list. The original iterable is never altered.

List Should Not Contain Value list_, value, msg=None

Fails if the value is found from list.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

Lists Should Be Equal list1, list2, msg=None, values=True, names=None

Fails if given lists are unequal.

The keyword first verifies that the lists have equal lengths, and then it checks are all their values equal. Possible differences between the values are listed in the default error message like Index 4: ABC != Abc. The types of the lists do not need to be the same. For example, Python tuple and list with same content are considered equal.

The error message can be configured using msg and values arguments:

  • If msg is not given, the default error message is used.
  • If msg is given and values gets a value considered true (see Boolean arguments), the error message starts with the given msg followed by a newline and the default message.
  • If msg is given and values is not given a true value, the error message is just the given msg.

Optional names argument can be used for naming the indices shown in the default error message. It can either be a list of names matching the indices in the lists or a dictionary where keys are indices that need to be named. It is not necessary to name all of the indices. When using a dictionary, keys can be either integers or strings that can be converted to integers.

Examples:

${names} = Create List First Name Family Name Email
Lists Should Be Equal ${people1} ${people2} names=${names}  
${names} = Create Dictionary 0=First Name 2=Email  
Lists Should Be Equal ${people1} ${people2} names=${names}  

If the items in index 2 would differ in the above examples, the error message would contain a row like Index 2 (email): name@foo.com != name@bar.com.

Log Dictionary dictionary, level=INFO

Logs the size and contents of the dictionary using given level.

Valid levels are TRACE, DEBUG, INFO (default), and WARN.

If you only want to log the size, use keyword Get Length from the BuiltIn library.

Log List list_, level=INFO

Logs the length and contents of the list using given level.

Valid levels are TRACE, DEBUG, INFO (default), and WARN.

If you only want to the length, use keyword Get Length from the BuiltIn library.

Pop From Dictionary dictionary, key, default=

Pops the given key from the dictionary and returns its value.

By default the keyword fails if the given key cannot be found from the dictionary. If optional default value is given, it will be returned instead of failing.

Example:

${val}= Pop From Dictionary ${D3} b

=>

${val} = 2
${D3} = {'a': 1, 'c': 3}

New in Robot Framework 2.9.2.

Remove Duplicates list_

Returns a list without duplicates based on the given list.

Creates and returns a new list that contains all items in the given list so that one item can appear only once. Order of the items in the new list is the same as in the original except for missing duplicates. Number of the removed duplicates is logged.

Remove From Dictionary dictionary, *keys

Removes the given keys from the dictionary.

If the given key cannot be found from the dictionary, it is ignored.

Example:

Remove From Dictionary ${D3} b x y

=>

${D3} = {'a': 1, 'c': 3}
Remove From List list_, index

Removes and returns the value specified with an index from list.

Index 0 means the first position, 1 the second and so on. Similarly, -1 is the last position, -2 the second last, and so on. Using an index that does not exist on the list causes an error. The index can be either an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Example:

${x} = Remove From List ${L2} 0

=>

${x} = 'a'
${L2} = ['b']
Remove Values From List list_, *values

Removes all occurrences of given values from list.

It is not an error if a value does not exist in the list at all.

Example:

Remove Values From List ${L4} a c e f

=>

${L4} = ['b', 'd']
Reverse List list_

Reverses the given list in place.

Note that the given list is changed and nothing is returned. Use Copy List first, if you need to keep also the original order.

Reverse List ${L3}

=>

${L3} = ['c', 'b', 'a']
Set List Value list_, index, value

Sets the value of list specified by index to the given value.

Index 0 means the first position, 1 the second and so on. Similarly, -1 is the last position, -2 second last, and so on. Using an index that does not exist on the list causes an error. The index can be either an integer or a string that can be converted to an integer.

Example:

Set List Value ${L3} 1 xxx
Set List Value ${L3} -1 yyy

=>

${L3} = ['a', 'xxx', 'yyy']
Set To Dictionary dictionary, *key_value_pairs, **items

Adds the given key_value_pairs and items to the dictionary.

Giving items as key_value_pairs means giving keys and values as separate arguments:

Set To Dictionary ${D1} key value second ${2}

=>

${D1} = {'a': 1, 'key': 'value', 'second': 2}
Set To Dictionary ${D1} key=value second=${2}

The latter syntax is typically more convenient to use, but it has a limitation that keys must be strings.

If given keys already exist in the dictionary, their values are updated.

Should Contain Match list, pattern, msg=None, case_insensitive=False, whitespace_insensitive=False

Fails if pattern is not found in list.

By default, pattern matching is similar to matching files in a shell and is case-sensitive and whitespace-sensitive. In the pattern syntax, * matches to anything and ? matches to any single character. You can also prepend glob= to your pattern to explicitly use this pattern matching behavior.

If you prepend regexp= to your pattern, your pattern will be used according to the Python re module regular expression syntax. Important note: Backslashes are an escape character, and must be escaped with another backslash (e.g. regexp=\\d{6} to search for \d{6}). See BuiltIn.Should Match Regexp for more details.

If case_insensitive is given a true value (see Boolean arguments), the pattern matching will ignore case.

If whitespace_insensitive is given a true value (see Boolean arguments), the pattern matching will ignore whitespace.

Non-string values in lists are ignored when matching patterns.

Use the msg argument to override the default error message.

See also Should Not Contain Match.

Examples:

Should Contain Match ${list} a*     # Match strings beginning with 'a'.
Should Contain Match ${list} regexp=a.*     # Same as the above but with regexp.
Should Contain Match ${list} regexp=\\d{6}     # Match strings containing six digits.
Should Contain Match ${list} a* case_insensitive=True   # Match strings beginning with 'a' or 'A'.
Should Contain Match ${list} ab* whitespace_insensitive=yes   # Match strings beginning with 'ab' with possible whitespace ignored.
Should Contain Match ${list} ab* whitespace_insensitive=true case_insensitive=true # Same as the above but also ignore case.
Should Not Contain Match list, pattern, msg=None, case_insensitive=False, whitespace_insensitive=False

Fails if pattern is found in list.

Exact opposite of Should Contain Match keyword. See that keyword for information about arguments and usage in general.

Sort List list_

Sorts the given list in place.

Sorting fails if items in the list are not comparable with each others. On Python 2 most objects are comparable, but on Python 3 comparing, for example, strings with numbers is not possible.

Note that the given list is changed and nothing is returned. Use Copy List first, if you need to keep also the original order.